Name- Vignesh Krishnamurthi Sanjay
1) What is quality?
Quality is defined as the degree of excellence. It is the thing which makes the customer to buy that product and it makes them to pay for it willingly.
GSA defines quality as “meeting the customer need’s first time and every time”.
Quality is used to determine how good or bad a product.
For Example- Comparing two mobiles like IPhone and Micromax (Indian Brand). People will go for IPhone even the rate is higher than micromax, it’s because of the quality of the product produced by Apple corporation.
Though both looks alike the quality of the product differs.
2) What is TQM?
TQM-Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management is defined as the complete cycle in which a company tends to increase the quality of the product by continuous improvement to meet the customer satisfaction.
It is the complete cycle of TQM.
Each and every aspects are important to improve the quality of the product.
Training must be given to the employers. It will increase the knowledge and also it will help to produce the product quickly.
“If you cannot define what you are doing as a process, you do not understand what you are doing.” -W. Edwards Deming
As Deming said the first thing is to plan the process. Because without planning there may be a chance of delay in manufacturing.
It is mainly used in Marketing. It is a measure of how products supplied by a company customer expectation.
It can be obtained by obtaining Feedback from the customers and evaluating it to improve the product.
3) How can we achieve organizational excellence with quality?
Organizational excellence can be obtained by five steps
1) Process management
2) Project management
3) Change management
4) Knowledge management
5) Resource management
Process Management is defined as the activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process. It is the step by step instruction for a process to be manufactured.
Project Management is defined as carefully planning, organizing, motivating and controlling resources to achieve specific goals and meet specific success in an organization.
Change Management is defined as project management process wherein changes to the scope of a project are formally introduced and approved.
Knowledge management is the process of capturing the knowledge of an organization and developing the knowledge of the employees with the help of proper training and to use the knowledge of the organization effectively to make a product successful.
The word resource not only mentions raw materials but also it includes financial resources, inventory, human skills, and production resources. So it is important to track the resource and also it is important to manage the resources so that it is not wasted and to make sure that it is used effectively.
4) What is the Deming cycle?
Deming cycle is also known as PDCA cycle.
It involves four steps
The first step in any process is plan. Because Plan is the thing with clearly shows us what are we going to do, How are we going to do and when are we going to do. It is also used to predict the budget of the process.
It’s the second step. In this we need to implement the plan. This is the first stage where the plan is executed.
The third step is to check the plan and the execution. It is the most important step because if we are not checking the process periodically means if there is a error in the process it will be tough to eliminate it at the end. So it is important to check the process periodically and to rectify the process.
The final step is to act according to the changes made for the improvement of the process. Act must be fast and immediate so that it won’t create any loss.
5) What are the most common errors when starting quality initiatives?
The common errors when starting quality initiatives are
1. Improper planning
2. Inadequate knowledge
3. Inadequate research
4. Improper resources management
Planning is the important thing to start a process or to maintain a process. The process will go good only if the planning is proper and good. If the planning is not good means then there might be a chance of failure or delay in the process and also at the same time it may lead to loss of resources such as time and material.
Knowledge is an essential one to know about the product and it is required to improve the quality of the product. Without knowledge one cannot improve the quality of the product. So it is must to gain knowledge about the project before going to improve the quality to make if effective.
A proper research must be done before staring a quality initiative because we need to study whether the problem happened before and is there any solutions for the same problem. Because it might save time and human work. So a proper research should be done on the problem.
Improper Resources Management:
Improper resource management is the major problem among the developing organization because the resource are the basic thing for an organization. Resources may be Raw material, Labor, Time.
6) Explain the cost of poor quality.
Cost of poor quality is the additional cost because of the quality and it would disappear it the processes and products were perfect.
It is classified into two different categories. They are
1. Direct poor quality costs
2. Indirect poor quality costs
Direct Poor Quality Costs:
It is further classified into three types. They are
1. Controllable poor-quality cost
2. Resultant poor-quality cost
3. Equipment poor-quality cost
Controllable poor-quality cost:
Prevention cost- Some of the prevention cost are
Quality planning- Planning the quality process at the start may reduce the cost of poor quality.
Proper Education and Training
Performing capability analyses
Appraisal cost- Testing and Inspection of the process
Indirect Poor Quality Costs:
Customer-incurred cost- It includes loss of productivity and repair costs after the warranty period.
7) What are the quality characteristics of world-class organizations?
Some of the quality characteristics of world class organizations are
2. Continuous Improvement
3. Delighted Employees
4. Delighted Customers
5. Outstanding Leadership
6. Operational Excellence
7. Innovation focused
The organization must outperform itself in the every product they produce and also in the every service they offer to their customers.
The organization can’t survive in the society if it is not improving its products periodically. So Continuous improvement is the essential one for a world class organization.
First the employees of the organization must be delighted. Only then they will be happy to work in the organization and they will work to improve the organization. The employees serve the customers and if the employees were not delighted, then how would the customers be?
Only if the customers are delighted they will buy the product. So it is important to satisfy the customers because they are the backbone of an organization and without them there is no development.
In order for an organization to be world class they must have many leaders in many areas. Best products, best services or employee satisfaction is not possible without an outstanding leadership. Leader is the person who will lead the team from the front and also an outstanding leader must not only create many followers also he needs to create many leaders.
Operational excellence is important in order to improve the product. It involves proper cash and material management, flawless operations and proper dealing of problems.
In order to outperform the organization in every offering, many new markets have to be discovered. Right innovation does that. Right people at the right places motivated by right kind of rewards make it happen.
8) Responsibility and total quality.
Responsibility is defined as the duty to deal with something. All employees must start their work at the correct time and there should not be any delay in initiating the work. And at the same time if there is any problem in a process means the corresponding person should act quickly to solve the problem so that there won’t be any delay in the process and to make sure that it won’t affect the other employee.
Responsibility of the leader is to make sure that all his employers are feeling comfortable in their works and to give proper training for them to improve their knowledge of the product.
Total quality means not only improving the quality of the product it also involves the improvement of employee morale and improving customer satisfaction and also continuous improvement of product.
Only if the employers are happy they will work to improve the organization and also at the same time the organization can grow only if it has a lot of good customers so it is also an important thing to fulfill the needs of the customers.
9) Discuss some models for ethical quality decisions.
Models for ethical quality decisions are
1. Categorical imperative model
2. Full-disclosure model
3. Doctrine of the mean model
4. Golden Rule model
5. Market-ethic model
6. Organizational ethic model
7. Equal freedom model
8. Proportionality ethic model
9. Professional ethic model
Golden rule method:
This rule states that do others what they did to you. In western society it is the important model.
Equal freedom model:
Organization has freedom to act unless it infringe the rights of stakeholders. This is a more confining model than it might appear at first glance.
Professional ethic model:
This model state that a decision is ethical if it can be explained to the approval of a broad cross-section of professional peers.
10) What is the engineering manager’s role in quality ethics?
In this approach we need to differentiate among ethical and unethical behavior. Managers are responsible to create conditions that will promote ethical behavior and also he needs to maintain the ratios of good and bad and also among ethical and unethical.
Black and White Approach:
It is a straight forward approach. It says whether the thing right or wrong. It is right if it is right or else wrong means wrong.
Full potential approach:
In this method the decisions are made on the condition that how it will affect the individuals to obtain their full potential.
It is up to the manager to decide which method is used.
Vignesh Krishnamurthi Sanjay